Friday, March 6, 2020

The Discount Window as a Monetary Policy Tool

The Discount Window as a Monetary Policy Tool The discount window is a monetary policy tool (managed by central banks) that permits genuine institutions to scrounge money from the central bank, mostly on the basis of short-term, in order to obtain fleeting paucities of liquidity, which may be caused by either internal or external intervals.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Discount Window as a Monetary Policy Tool specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interest that is charged by the central bank is known as the base rate, discount rate or repo rate. However, the borrower must provide collateral on such loan (Federal Reserve 1). The main idea behind the discount window is to give banks liquidity whenever they necessitate it without making them much dependent upon it. In 2007, the Federal Reserve successfully did this by decreasing or increasing the discount rate. This means that by decreasing the discount rate, the Federal Reserve is attempting to enhance the development by making liquidity easier to be obtained, and by increasing, it indicates that Federal Reserve is worried about inflationary on the economy and that is why it is endeavoring to decrease the amount of money in the economy (Bogle 12). What Was Happening to the Banks at That Time? The financial crisis of 2007 was stimulated by the shortfall of liquidity in the US banking system. This caused large financial institutions in US to get themselves into hot water and even some collapsing. The financial sector was impacted by the world crisis in February, 2007. The financial crisis was caused by the major loss which had been reported by the world’s largest bank (HSBC). The bank had lost holdings by $10.5 billion. This led to the crisis which had been compared with the Great Depression. For about 100 mortgage companies had to report about selling their activities or about their shut down throughout 2007. As crisis continued to dig out, other financial institutions decided t o merge or announce to look for merger partners. The top managers (such CEO’s) who could not bear the situation, made a decision of relinquishing their jobs, a good example is the CEO’s of Citigroup and Merrill Lynch, who relinquish within two weeks (Dozark-Frideres 1). Moreover, this financial crisis of 2007 caused huge panic in financial markets and as a result, a lot of investors were totally discourage, hence they began taking away their money from shrinking mortgage bonds and equities and invest it in other secure ways, such as commodities as â€Å"store of value.†Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, due to overwhelming number of investors in commodities following the collapse of financial firms, the speculation of commodity has resulted to food crisis and an increase of oil prices, because of commodity super-cycle. In addition, the financial investors who are looking for fast returns have taken away trillions of money from the risky mortgage bonds and equities, making some to invest in raw materials and food (Bogle 45). In 2006, provisions for prospect defaults and mortgage defaults influenced the income at the 8533 depository institutions of the United States. These defaults caused the decrease from $35.2 billion to $646 million by the FDIC. This resulted in a decrease of 98%. Having analyzed the financial situation in t world, it may be stated that the country’s economy has not experience such problems since 1990. 2007 was considered to be the worst year for performance for most financial firms in the country. Turning to the problems of insured depository firms, is should be mentioned that the companies had lost about 31% in comparison with 2006. Thus, the income of the insured depository firms in 2007 was $100 billion, while in 2006 it was about $145 billion. In same year (2007), the profit decreased from $35.6 billion Q1 to $19.3 billion in Q1 of 2008, a decrease of 45% (FDIC 1). Below is a bar graph that shows the quarterly U.S. bank earnings from 2004 to 2008. Quarterly U.S. Bank Earnings from 2004 to 2008 Furthermore, there was a situation when the discount window became the same as the federal fund rate. This situation became possible due to the fact that the supply curve of reserves became horizontal. This was provoked by the Fed desire to offer as many loans as possible at the discount rate to prevent them from bankruptcy. There was a situation in 2007 when discount rate and the federal fund rate equaled each other. This situation became possible in a number of reasons. â€Å"As iff rises above id, banks will borrow more and more at id, and re-lend at iff. The supply curve is horizontal (perfectly elastic) at id (Wright and Quadrini n.p.).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Discount Window as a Monetary Policy Tool specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The situation is showed below. Table 1. Equilibrium in the fed funds market (Wright and Quadrini n.p.) It is possible to consider the situation when the discount rate and the federal fund rate equaled each other: on the 16th of March, 2008 the discount rate was cut 25 bps and was reduced to 3.25% and indicated an intermeeting move (Chronology n.p.). What Was Happening to the Economy? The economy of the United State of America was also in hot soup. Betwixt June 2007 and November 2008, it was report that Americans lost approximate a quarter of their net value. The prices of house had decline to 20% from their peak in 2003, while other prospect markets indicating a potential decline of 30 to 35%. By mid-2008, the US total home equity decline to $8.8 trillion for its peak in 2006 that valued at $13 trillion. To understand the level of the problem, it is important to consider the activities from a broad U.S. stock index. The decline in No vember 2008 was 45% if to calculate from the peak in 2007. The declination of the total retirement assets from 2006 to 2008 was about 22% (in 2006 the numbers reached $10.3 trillion, and in 2008 the activities hardly reacted $8 trillion). Meanwhile, the investments and the savings made a loss of $1.2 trillion. At the same time, a loss of $1.3 trillion was considered in the activities of the pension assets (Dozark-Frideres 1). Below is a graph showing US housing price performance from 1998 to 2007. Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How the Discount Windows Usually Operate To save the situation, or at least do not support its further damaging development, the Federal Reserve Bank have created three different discount window programs. These discount window programs were directed at depository institutions. â€Å"Primary credit, secondary credit and seasonal credit† (Federal Reserve 1) are the discount window programs implemented by the Federal Reserve Bank. However, although all credits are fully secured, each credit has its own rate of interest. In the primary credit program, loans are normally prolonged for a short term (for about 24hrs) to depository firms in order to meet the financial conditions. For the financial firms that are not under primary category can apply for secondary credit so that they can settle their severe financial problems or short-term liquidity necessities. On other hand, seasonal credit is prolonged to comparatively small depository firms that have persistent intra-year ebb and f low in funding necessities, like seasonal resort communities or banks in agriculture. Now, it is important to consider the discount rate charges in the primary credit, in the secondary credit, and in the seasonal credit. Turning to the primary credit, the charges are more than the normal level of short-term market interest rates. Using the secondary credit, the charges are going to be above the primary credit. Using the seasonal credit, the charges are going to be set on an average of certain chosen market rate. The depository institutions had an opportunity to choose the discount window program depending on the conditions of each offer. The discount rates have been formed by every Reserve Bank’s board of directors (Federal Reserve 1). How Did It Exactly Operate in 2007? In the response, the USA central bank together with central banks across the globe and the Federal Reserve took several measures to address the crisis. Below is how the discount window operated in 2007. The discount rate was decreased from 5.75% (August) to 4.75% (December), and the Federal funds rate was also lowered from 5.25% (August) to 4.25% (December). They also formed lending institutions, which offered loans with low collateral to banks and other financial firms. The financial institutions were encouraged to apply for loans, either under primary, secondary or seasonal credit, but this depended on their qualification (Dozark-Frideres 1). Did the Discount Window Continue to 2008 and Why? The discount window programs continued in 2008. Here are a number of reasons for such decision. The main reason for extending discount window in 2008 was the fact that still many financial institutions had not fully recovered from this crisis. In December 2008, the Federal Reserve decreased the federal funds rate further to a range of 0-0.25%. Moreover, in November 2008, the Fed said that it wanted to purchase MBS of the GSE at a price of $600, in order to decrease the mortgage rates (Dozark-Fri deres 1). The Federal Reserve Bank could not leave unstable financial situation in the country without support, so the decision was made to continue the discount window programs up to the time when the financial stability is implemented in the world bank system. What Does the Discount Window Do With Sterilized Funds in the Federal Reserve? The discount window can open market operations, whereby it venders bonds domestically, hence gaining new cash that can go around the home economy (Federal Reserve 1). Moreover, according to the Federal Reserve, â€Å"U.S. branches and agencies of foreign banks that hold reserves are eligible to borrow under the same general terms and conditions that apply to domestic depository institutions† (Federal Reserve 1). Why Did Not the Federal Reserve Allow Lehman Brothers to Use the Discount Window in 2007? The Federal Government did not want to bail out Lehman brothers, as it had had already drawn the line somewhere, and other financial firms cou ld not stay connected with Lehman assets on the spot (Siris 1). At the same time, many financial institutions â€Å"could not get comfortable with Lehmans assets in an instant† (Siris 1). Federal Government hoped that Lehman had enough assets to recover from crisis and stabilize the situation. The theoretical ability of Lehman to keep the company afloat was one of the main reasons why it was refused in discount window program. Still, the firm suffered more than it was expected and there was a threat Lehman’s bankruptcy impacted each organization at the Wall Street (Siris 1). In conclusion it should be stated that discount window programs provided by the Federal Reserve Bank were effective and they made it possible for many different companies remain afloat. At the same time, the inability of the programs to fund each organization and cover the expenses or each company made the Federal Reserve Bank draw the line which did not satisfy the expectations of many financial i nstitutions at the Wall Street. But, in general, the activity was successful. Bogle, John. The Battle for the Soul of Capitalism. London: Yale University Press. 2005. Print. â€Å"Chronology – Fed funds rate changes since 1994.† Reuters. June, 2010. Web. Dozark-Frideres, Taryn. How Did the Central Banks in the U.S. and Europe React to the Global Financial Crisis? 2010. Web. FDIC. FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile. 2008. Web. Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve Discount Window. 2010. Web. Siris, Peter. Government Did Not Want To Bail Out Lehman Brothers. 2008. Web. Wright, Robert E. and Vincenzo Quadrini. Money and Banking. Irvington, NY: Flat World Knowledge 2009. Web.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Malnutrition In Children And Preventive Measures Essay

Malnutrition In Children And Preventive Measures - Essay Example What is your claim? Is it that it has emerged as growing health problem all over the world or that the long term impact is too severe? What are your main points? They seem to be: economic impact, concentrated in developing countries, active intervention by governments, educational intervention through health care services, women’s rights, and nursing care guidelines for treatment. How could you apply this to your paper so that the thesis statement includes your topic, claim, and indicates the structure, Marco? *Marco 2638165 has requested that you respond to the Introduction/Conclusion: I have no concerns about either your introduction or conclusion as both perform their respective functions well. Your introduction prepares the reader for the essay that follows by proving very helpful background information. The conclusion does a most effective job of reinforcing your overall discussion by echoing your overall thesis and summarizing the main points of discussion. Good work!   Use of Resources: Your citations all comply with APA guidelines—well done, Marco. However, your References page needs a little work. Your References page at the end of the essay correctly lists all of the sources used in your paper in alphabetical order by inverted author’s name. However, they should be presented in a hanging indent. You have also correctly list internet sources with unknown authors under the article or entry name and placed titles in italics.Here are examples and models for you to review against: With electronic sources it is only necessary to give the retrieval date for APA if the website is likely to be updated frequently. While the order may vary, an example of a listing for an electronic source is: Justice, C. (2004, July 28). The struggle against... If the population is healthy then there would be the generation of a proper workforce which in turn will contribute to the economic growth of the economy. Thus policies are made by the government to ensure a healthy environment. ‘Healthy People 2020" was launched in 2010 by the Department of Health and Human Services which had almost 1200 objectives focusing on different areas of public health. The principle goal of this program was to ensure high-quality life, achievement of health equity, elimination of disparities, promotion of good health and healthy behaviors (CDC, n.d). Keeping the goal of Healthy People 2020 in mind it is essential to seriously look into the matter. Child malnutrition has been growing at an alarming rate in the developing countries. Children represent future generation and hence provision of proper health facilities to curb malnutrition is an essential requirement. If proper attention is not given to this issue then it would hamper the growth of the econ omy. In the sub- Saharan Africa the number of children who are undernourished (low weight for age) has increased from 90 million in the year 1970 to 225 million in the year 2008. It has been projected that it would increase by another 100 million by 2015 (Teller & Alva, n.d). The situation of malnourishment is equally grim for India where the state of Madhya Pradesh accounts for the highest rate of malnutrition. The seriousness of malnourishment can be understood from the extent of its long term consequences.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Stress and Health Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Stress and Health - Essay Example e body to any demand whether it is caused by, or results in pleasant or unpleasant conditions†¦We must, however, differentiate within the general concept of stress between the unpleasant or harmful variety, called â€Å"distress† (from the Latin dis = bad, as in dissonance, disagreement), and â€Å"eustress† (from the Greek eu =good, as in euphonia, euphoria)†¦However, the fact that eustress causes much less damage than distress graphically demonstrates that it is â€Å"how you take it† that determines ultimately, whether one can adapt successfully to change.(p.6) Thus, stress may affect an individual positively or negatively. It depends on one’s outlook of the situation. Does stress affect the well being of individuals? This paper attempts a response to this question and provides certain practical solutions that can be used to ease the burden of stress on one’s health. Firstly, today’s society demands that an adult is faced with several responsibilities namely, children, family, work, or one may even be in the process of fostering a social relationship which will require quality time. As Seyle implied distress or eustress is determined by the individual’s perception of the circumstances. For example, an individual who has family responsibilities and is also a full-time student may view the course as a distressing factor because the time lost in attending these courses may have been used to obtain a job that would provide income to attend to the needs of the family. This individual may experience and perceive this lost time as depressing and as a result may respond negatively to the conditions, thus worsening his/her mental and physical well-being. Contrastingly, the same individual could decide to take a different perspective and recognize the value of this time as an investment into procuring a job with better-quality remuneration that could not otherwise be acquired. This student, then by changing his/her viewpoint can reduce the stress level from a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Concepts of Black Identity

Concepts of Black Identity In the article Skin Bleaching, Self-Hate and Black Identity in Jamaica, Christopher Charles, tries to uncover the reason why Blacks in Jamaica decides to bleach their skin. In the article, Charles, uncover the word Identity which separates one entity from the rest. Jamaica is a plural society (Charles, 2003) and many black Jamaicans try to be accepted by the superior European culture. The major factor that contribute to the low self-esteem in Jamaicans are the black mothers telling their children white is better than brown and brown is better than black and their nappy hair is bad. Bleach has become so prevalent in Jamaica. The Ministry of Health and the Police force had to be more vigilant to crack down on bleaching. Many under-the-counter products were seized by the police but with a determination to have another identity many black Jamaicans were creating their own home-made products. Female advancement to be light-skinned or fair was blamed by the postindependence nationalist leaders. There are many reasons why females bleach but the one that stands out is their concerned with their body image (Charles, 2003). Christopher Charles made many interesting points as to why black Jamaicans bleach. The issue even 10 year olds in school are taking bleaching pill made me very upset. How could a mother or father put their own child through such a horrible treatment just so that their child can be brown skinned and be accepted by society? Bob Marley once said until the colour of a mans skin is of no more significance than the colour of his eyes. I agree with this statement because Jamaican women has lost track of what is important and significant about of black beauty. I also support the fact that parents should protect their child from all danger but endangering your child while trying to protect them color-coded or keeping up appearance is not accepted at all in my book. I think policy makers should put strict measures in place to severely deal with parents that strive to change the colour of their child skin and endanger them because the desire to change ones skin color to look different from ones racial group is cause by the psychological scars of the hierarchical plural society (Charles, 2003). The statement there are persons who are black, and they recognize this fact is true as far as I believe. However, Blackness has less salience in the construction of their identities (Charles, 2003). For example, someone (black) was adopted at a young age at about 12 by White parents. These white parents will teach their adopted child their values, norms and symbols because that is what the parent know to be right. The child identifying them as black but they still will not portray much of the black nominal. Another example of one embracing the nominal of other group is whites who become Rastafarian. They are not neglecting their own identity but their self-affirmed identity is with the group or groups whose values, norms and symbols they have incorporated (Charles, 2003) In concluding, I do agree with Charles on many aspects. Most black women, especially Jamaicans, have no value for their skin color any more. Parents instill this norm in their kids at a very young age, and therefore they grow up with the same mentality to teach their kids. And therefore, the cycle continues. The colonial system has miseducated our people into believing that the only standard of beauty is the one defined by European ideals (Charles, 2003). reeducation (Charles, 2003) is necessary for our people. Two Worlds by V.S Naipaul Two worlds defines how V.S. Naipaul, of Indian background, had to deal with the reality of knowing just about nothing of his ancestors other than his grandmothers house which had a little of the Indian history that their ancestors brought with them from India. He lived in a world where his Hindi language was minimal, only the alphabet was known among some, because the English language was penetrating through Trinidad. No one asked about India and when they decided to ask about it was already too late. As a writer his darkness became his subject. He wrote on India, Africa, the colony and many other topics. He traveled to India to discover what India was like because no one could have told him about India. He also traveled to different Caribbean region to learn more about the colonial setting. I cant remember anyone inquiring. And now the memory is all lost (Naipaul,n.d), this statement touch me because the Caribbean has a rich history as mix languages that was lost because of the constant change in the colonial master. In Grenada, many years ago we speak both English and French Creole but because of ignorance and selfish behaviors the French Creole language died with our great grandparents and was not pass down from generation to generation to preserve whats ours. But in St.Lucia French Creole has been passing down from generation to generation because they see the need to preserve what makes them different from the rest of the world and the Caribbean. Naipaul, (n.d) stated that All children, I suppose, come into the world like that, now knowing who they are. But for the French child, that knowledge is awaiting. That knowledge will be all around them. It will come indirectly from the conversation of their elders. It will be in the newspapers and on the radio. And at the s chool the work of generations of scholars, scaled down for school texts, will provide come idea of France and the French. The Mimic Men written by Naipaul, even if his intention was of the book was different but it capture a meaning of how the Caribbean is still on the puppet string being Mimic by the slave master. Men who had grown to distrust everything about themselves (Naipaul.n.d.). We are able to do anything and achieve anything on our own but once the former colonial master no longer in control get involved our inner slave starts to show itself, no longer we believe but obey and the Colonial men mimicking the condition of manhood (Naipaul, n.d.). In conclusion, Naipaul was lost in a world where he was born and a world where he was from. He travelled to India to discover where he came from, his ancestral land (Naipaul,n.d.) and also the Caribbean. Naipaul stated the world is always in movement and so we as Caribbean people need to move with the world for if we remind in mental slavery will and not up elevate our self our ancestor would have fought for our freedom in vain. O Brave New World by Maryse Conde The article O Brave New World by Maryse Conde raised some serious issues about globalization and what it means for the Caribbean. First he highlights, Caribbean countries seem to be the most concerned with this future since they lack political and economic power (Conde, 1998). This makes it difficult for Caribbean countries to compete in the global village against first world countries. Secondly, Conde, shamelessly states Globalization does not frighten me but For me it means reaching out beyond national and linguistic borders both in actual exchanges and transatlantic influences and in the expressive imagination of diasporic black communities (Conde, 1998). Here, Conde is showing that we do not need to have the largest economy nor political powers to break down barriers. We need to emerge together to overcome all obstacles as one people. Finally, Conde, highlighted black people had no intention of solving individually the problems of their specific countries but looked towards the t ransnationalization of black culture as a solution (Conde, 1998). He is mentioning that the barriers that once stood in front black people is beginning to give way and we Negroes of all origin and nationalities with different customs and religious vaguely sense that they belong, in spite of everything, to a single and same race(Conde, 1998). Sitting here and thinking how it is that we Caribbean people find it difficult to come together as one and not stand as individuals. Little Montserrat in the Caribbean, unknown to the majority of westerners, emerged from obscurity when it was threatened by the volcanic eruption of the Soufriere. This is a perfect example of why we need to stand as one people and not wait for a disaster to bring light to the Caribbean. I believe that we need to take ourselves out of the backward thinking and move towards a future thats transnational and global. Conde stated No intention of solving individually the problems of their specific countries. I dont agree with this statement because problematic countries will consume a lot of the other countries resources which will create even more problem for the resourceful country. For example, with the difficulties facing some African countries it would be hard to assist them. After encountering people of the same race from different countries, the state ment Negroes of all origin and nationalities with different customs and religious vaguely sense that they belong, in spite of everything, to a single and same race. On the religious aspect of the quote, I would have to agree with Conde. For example, in a black society of different religions: Rastas, Adventists and Catholics. Rasta believes that eating meat is bad, most Catholics believes that meat is good, while the Adventists think that pork (meat) is bad. Can everybody exist as one and not exist as multitude in the same race? I think not and this will create a lot of indifferences and cause a division between the people of the same race. In conclusion, the article, O Brave New World, has shown us that we still have a long way to go as transnational of black culture and with an ever changing world and each nation wanting to keep its own identity I think it would be difficult for any black nation to exist as one. Is Massa Day Dead? In the introduction of Is Massa Day Dead?, Orde Coombs highlight West Indian society is essentially a pappyshow society in which serious thought and dreadful calamities are acknowledge with the briefest of attention so that one can go about the business of ones business (Coombs,1974). In the West Indian society we give a blind eye to a lot of the serious issues or problems that plague our society in West Indian but in order to solve this issues we will have to change our way of thinking and remove The American cultural juggernaut that smashes its way into the willing or unwilling psyches of all the islanders (Coombs, 1974). Derek Walcott portrays a view that suggests he accepts both side of his heritage and cannot let one fade and one prosper but give both balance because both are important to his life. Brathwaite had a different view that we should accept our Africanness and neglect the other half of our ancestors. Whereas Millette and Rohlehr believe that black people need to stand up and drive its intellectual dynamic against the deepening pressure of this age of neo-colonialism (Coombs,1974). Hodge, Thomas, Hodgson, Stewart, Edmondson all speak of striving for equality among all black people and most importantly to take pride in our Africannes of West Indian society. In the Is Massa Day Dead? Brathwaite bids us a journey into the past to find the African and Amerindian in us, for only then can we become ourselves and measure the rhythm of our own creativity (Coombs,1974). Braithwaites views are that we should forget about the European that is in some of us, for example, Derek Walcott, like the halves of a fruit seamed by own bitter juice, that exiled from your own Edens you have placed me in the wonder of another, and that was my heritance and your gift. Walcott have both African and European in him and he claims both heritage and not one over the other but embracing of both cultures. Braithwaites view which I think dont apply in this global village but Walcott views pin point the direction that is being taking today as Coombs stated, black people have begun not only to probe their commonality, but to understand that the shibboleths that separate us. There are Many of the more serious thinkers of these islands who want to usher in a just society, who wants to abolish privileges based on race or class (Coombs, 1974). In the Caribbean we are still, sort of under the slave master mentally because once islanders make a valuable contribution to the island their ideas are not analyzed, but they themselves are put under a blaze of lights and their foibles and weaknesses exposed(Coombs,1974. With this type of mentality by islanders the island development will remind one place and not move forward but floats around like a piece of plank for all eternity. May be this due to the fact that Cultural juggernaut has penetrate our minds more then we think and it will and lot of education of our people and take us out of this illusion that America is better than us. In conclusion, I think that Coombs effectively displays a lot of the problems that we are faced with in the Caribbean. Among them, the inequality between men and women and how men still dominate and have high positions in society. However, in recent years, you will find women graduating with degrees and earning high positions in society. This clearly shows that woman are rising out of the mentally that women should be seen and not heard. Brathwaite and Walcott stand on their Africanness and Europeanness and for the many struggles that are still being fought by black thinkers to unshackle us from the neo-colonialism that still is with us today. West Indians and their Language by Peter A. Roberts West Indians and Their Language by Peter Roberts highlighted how geography, politically, definition, history and culture connects the West Indies language. The term West Indian as define by Roberts, it confers on the people of many different islands an identity or homogeneity which all of them do not want to be associated with (Roberts, n.d.). The term West Indies, does not have a precise meaning or definition but Roberts gives a general meaning it refers to the very same islands or territories (Roberts, n.d.). Roberts made mention of how geography and politics influence the West Indies connectively. Geographically, the islands are separated into the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles there were separated because of the size of the islands and the distance from each other. Politically, the West Indies European policy determined the entities in the Caribbean by creating great distances or close links between the islands regardless of their actual distance from each other (Robert s, n.d.). Roberts, define the term language and a language. Language can be look at from the linguistic competence which the joining of the innate capacity (the child) and actual input from the society (words, phrases) (Roberts, n.d.). Languages in the West Indies change over time because of the constant chance of colonial (British, French) power which gives birth to the distinction of language throughout the West Indies. Roberts, highlights the varieties of language spoken in the West Indies. English which is said to be good or proper; English thats not good or proper is dialect (Roberts, n.d.). Roberts also give details of Creole, Patois and Slang that is part of the West Indies. Roberts enlighten me on West Indies language on how diverse our language is. I would have never thought that dialect is considered to be Standard West Indies English. Grenada, as history has shown, been through the French and the British hands for many years and finally become British about the 19th century (Roberts, n.d.). To look at why Grenada loss its French Creole I will take it from a cultural, educational and geographical point of view. First geographically, Grenada is located near to Trinidad than St.Luica and the other French Creole speaking islands. Cultural view because Grenada is now under the British rule, British will impose its culture on Grenada. Finally, from an educational view, British try or should I say eradicate French Creole through the use of school and teaching British language while the French Creole dead out. In conclusion, Roberts give a comprehensive understanding of West Indies language on how it went through so many different circles till it ends up as it is today. French Creole and many other languages that was lost because we were washed away of our African language and taught the European language English which is still considered bad or broken. West Indian English, however, unlike other dialect of English (perhaps excepting Indian English), has features which are significantly difference in nature, features which have resulted from the nature of the contact between African and European and from the circumstances of development of language in the West Indies (Roberts, n.d.). The Roots of Caribbean Identity: Language, Race and Ecology by Peter. A. Roberts In the article The Roots of Caribbean Identity: Language, Race and Ecology Roberts links how European countries embrace their identity which suggest that place, people and language are closely allied in the formulation of national identity (Roberts, 2008) and in the Caribbean we have a great present of European influence such as the language, place and person. Also he highlighted the notion of identity (Roberts, 2008). We in the Caribbean are the same but yet we still are different and how we as social being differentiate ourselves into classes. Finally, human societies are not static but no matter how similar or different we are we will create a new identity that will either be accepted or not. Language is in part a universal human factor and in part a factor of place this statement makes me think of how we as humans are the same but yet so different when it comes to our language. For example, here in Grenada we have this stigma (distinct language) between people from the country side (St.Patricks) and people from the town (St.Georges). Recognize speakers from outside their community by their speech. Someone from the country side will speak more dialect than someone from the town and someone from the town will speak not restricted to use of a single language because in the town people consider themselves as speaking standard English, considering they live on the tourism belt. Roberts stated that a sound is in essence what language or variety of language they speak. Many Caribbean islands national language is English because of the colonial ties with Britain. For example, if a tourist comes to Grenada; the taxi men and other people that come in contract with the tourist will know the nationality of that tourist base on their accent, for instance, if its a British tourist the taxi man will put on a British accent or if its an American the taxi man will put on an American accent. This is not a good way to appreciate our own language because the tourist might not even be able to understand what you are saying and this is why we as Caribbean people need to hold on to wants ours and pass it on from generation to generation. As Roberts mention while behavior may in some objective way be the best criterion for judging sameness, it is the sense of sight (colour/race) and sound (language) that provide the initial and usually most deep-seated conclusions about sameness and difference in identity. The Antilles: Fragment of Epic Memory written by Derek Walcott tells us of how the Caribbean move from a history of violence to what it is today. He mentions how the Caribbean culture is not evolving but already shaped (Walcott, 1992) and its proportions are not to be measured by the traveler or the exile, but by its own citizenry and architecture (Walcott, 1992). Which is true because when foreign looks at postcard they see blue sea, drinks with umbrella and they dont see the true nature of the island, the real history of the Caribbean. Walcott talks about how in Trinidad, the Indian people, reenact the Hindu Epic the Ramayana in the small village of felicity that shows the collective memory of its people which is the essence of human experience which goes way beyond any history that can be found in books. After reading and internalizing The Antilles: Fragment of Epic Memory, I agree with Walcott on one fact, which I think has been plaguing us in the Caribbean for some time now and it still is going on even if many efforts are being place in school to teach us about our history and not too much about the European history. As Walcott stated Every endeavor is belittled as imitation, from architecture to music for example, in Grenada the government is introducing to its school curriculum, consume making, with the intention of passing on some of our history to the youth. Today most of the youth are straying towards the first world culture. For instance, you would not fine a kid playing some of the Caribbean games no more but they would engaged in video and computer games or watch MTV or the Disney World channel or some foreign channel that dont teach them about their culture or ancestors. This is how the islands from the shame of necessity sell themselves; this is the seasonal erosion of their identity (Walcott, 1992). Walcott writes, Visitors to the Caribbean must feel that they are inhabiting a succession of postcards. The Caribbean is like a Botanical Gardens, as if the sky were a glass ceiling under which colonized vegetation is arranged for quiet walks and carriage rides (Walcott, 1992). The hidden beauty of the Caribbean is unknown by travelers (tourist) but known by citizens. The Caribbean seasons are like an unending summer of the tropics not even poverty or poetry seems capable of being profound because the nature around it is so exultant, so resolutely ecstatic, like its music, thats a perfect description of how the Caribbean is and not a postcard that tells a million words but the true essence of its culture, its people and its way of life. In conclusion, A culture based on joy is bound to be shallow (Walcott, 1992). Walcott speaks on how we take our culture, the people and the beauty and wonders of the Caribbean for granted. The Caribbean belong to us and we should portray it, not as a postcard, but a symbol of our heritage, our culture, our place of birth, as the song goes by Eric Donaldson this is the land of my birth, in essence, the Caribbean is the land of our birth and Caribbean people should not only express themselves when they are away from home, but should do so all the time. And in doing so, it should not be half represented. They should speak the true facts and paint the true picture of the land.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

African American Cultural Assessment Essay

Abstract In order to provide culturally appropriate care, an examination of one’s personal views, beliefs, and prejudices must be examined. The first portion of this paper will examine my personal values, beliefs, biases, and prejudices. The remaining paper will analyze the African American culture relating to the Ginger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment Model cited in Hood (2010). This model uses six key cultural elements that include communication, space, social organization, time, environment, and biological variations. This model provides a systematic approach for assessing culturally diverse clients. I will also discuss an aspect of care that I would advocate a change in my clinical practice for the African American population. Cultural Self-Assessment Culture is one of the most basic elements that makes up the identity and personality of each individual. Every individual has their own culture rooted from the community they lived in and the family they grew up making up the personal identity people have in the general society Personal views, aspects of reasoning and judgment and the general logical thinking of an individual are affected significantly by the culture he or she has. In this aspect, the entire well-being of a person depends greatly on his or her culture. Becoming aware of how your actions and cultural beliefs affect the patients that you deal with is important. Thus, a person must regularly assess himself because an action or a mere word done or spoken by a nurse can be misunderstood by these patients coming from different cultures Being an American born and lived all my life in New Bedford, Massachusetts, culture has really affected me as a person. My mother and grandparents were born in Portugal and this gave me a variety of culture since we all know that New Bedford is a melting pot of cultures. Portugal possesses rich cultural inheritance from European, African, and North American cultures. Aside from that, mainly Portuguese and Hispanic people populate the community where I live in. These further made me grow as an individual that is rich in cultural inheritance. I am a person who has a Portuguese lineage, since my grandparents were natives of Portugal and a person who grew up in a community wherein Portuguese people mainly inhabits the land. Having an ethnic identity as a Portuguese American who acquiring the Portuguese cultures and practices surrounding me molded me as to who I am now. This ethnic affiliation will always be a part of me, my friends, and my family. Each cultural belief that I introjected within has already affected how my mentality works, and how my feelings reacts. Family and friends have always served as my fortress in time of trials and difficulty. They remain as my comfort zone whenever I feel so down. They are the main support people in my life from which I extract my energy from. Adopting this belief from my parents and from the community I live in is one of the proofs that the culture of the people around me had affected me well. Living with people who provide high regards to friends and families will make you have the similar perspective too. My culture does not affect much my preferences with medical treatments. In line with this, being an independent person, the decisions for my health mainly comes from me since I am the owner of this body. My family and friends will surely voice out their concerns, but it does not mean that I have to follow them, I might consider it but what would really matter will be my decision for my own health. As of what I have observed in my family, especially among my grandparents, the family is mainly a patriarch form of family. Decisions mainly depend on my grandfather since he is the father and the man in the family. Especially among Portuguese, it was noted that people in Portugal gives higher regards to male than to female. They still have this belief that a woman shall always be better than woman. However, in my case, growing as an American with a Portuguese lineage, things were far more different. I grew up having giving importance to democracy and equality. Voices of the female are now more heard, and I think male and female are both equal. This is because I think they have equal abilities, as well as, equal rights. Living in a community filled with Portuguese people made me learn English and Portuguese. Aside from that, my grandparents required me to learn those languages too, especially Portuguese which is their main language in their main land. However, the primary language that I utilize in everyday conversation is English and the secondary language that I know is Portuguese. However, most of the time, I am comfortable with non-verbal forms of communication, especially doing hand gestures. I am more expressive with this form of communication because I think it can bring many messages to the people that I interact with. With a mere wave of a hand, it can show joy, respect, accommodation, or even comfort to those people you interact with. Being a Roman Catholic is very importance to my daily life because this gives me support, comfort, and security whenever difficult situations occur. This belief helps me to cope with the trials I face by knowing that there is a supreme being up there that is in control of everything. That the God whom I know as my Father, my King, and my Savior loves me so much and will never forsake me whatever happens. Daily life gives us opportunities to grow with our spiritual relationship with God by walking each day with him, and applying his will and commandments in everything that we do. Foods are one of the things that I truly enjoy. I do not have any prohibitions whenever it comes to food. I know how to eat a variety of foods. I do not have any food allergies that might prohibit me from eating other foods. As long as it is clean and digestible, I can definitely give it a shot. Currently, I am in a relationship with my boyfriend of eight years who is interracial himself. My work provides me career growth and financial security that I definitely need to support myself. I have no issues with the job that I have right now, since it suffices the finances that I have. Nevertheless, of course, like anyone else, an opportunity for greener pastures will be much appreciated and entertained when it comes. Being a nurse, I am aware of all the possible medical treatments that can be done to each person experiencing illness. Even though I know how much these practices could help me survive various predicaments in health, I still prefer not to undergo through some of it in case I will encounter them in my life one day. I do not have problems taking medications and intravenous lines; however, I really do not want to be intubated at end of life decisions. I know how awful it seems, and how difficult is it having a tube being attached to me. I also do not want to live on life support because I think that such modalities only prolongs the agony that you feel. It has been my personal belief ever since that when the time comes that God wants to take the life He has given me, nothing can prevent that. As a Catholic, I believe that birth is a gift of life from God. Thus, I definitely go against with abortion, which kills an innocent child’s life. With regards to death, I believe that after death, the soul goes to purgatory, and God will judge you whether you will go to heaven or to hell. However, with regards to miracles and afterlife, I do not think that these are rational. As a person, I give high regard to a person’s hope. I believe that hope is essential for a person to live the life we have, and to fight the everyday battles that we face. Without hope in our lives, we lose the chance of living and enjoying the life we received from God. Instead, we become a living corpse, a person who is literally living physically yet the inside of the heart is as cold as a corpse, because he has no hope and no joy for anything. Cultural Assessment and Analysis Paper on African American Population The population that interested me to do additional research is African American population. The total population including all races and ethnicities in the United States is 308 million. After researching on the U. S. Census Bureau, I found 39 million African Americans live in the United States. One of the most glaring disparities is apparent in the African. American community, where 48% of adults suffer from a chronic disease compared to 39% of the general population (Health Reform, 2009). The CDC states that in 2004, African Americans had the highest age-adjusted all-causes death rate of all races/ethnicities (CDC, 2008). African Americans have become susceptible to many diseases and health problems throughout the last number of years. The male and female citizens of the African American population have been struggling with high rates of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer rates, stroke, diabetes, asthma and HIV/AIDS just to name a few. African Americans have numerous health risks as well such as; higher incidence of homicide, lower physical activity levels, obesity, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, incarceration, unintended pregnancy, and untreated dental carries (Hood, 2010). Despite remarkable improvements in the overall health of our nation during the past couple of decades, compelling evidence suggests that our nation’s racial and ethical minority African Americans suffer increasing disparities in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and adverse health outcomes compared with white Americans (Copeland, 2005). The predominant barriers to accessible health care services for African Americans include inability to pay for services, lack of transportation and childcare, decrease understanding of treatment plans and inability to incorporate prescribed health plans into daily living patterns (Russell & Jewell, 1992). Furthermore, the African American population’s cultural beliefs and health practices have a significant impact upon their well-being regardless of their educational levels and income. Therefore, these health beliefs and practices affect utilization of contemporary health-care service delivery systems even when other barriers have been eliminated. Differences in health beliefs and practices can be observed among African Americans in varying age groups, socioeconomic levels, and geographic locales. The commonalities include religious orientation, social support networks, and inform health care systems (Russell & Jewell, 1992). Religion is a focal point within the lives of African Americans. Many African Americans characterize health as a continuum evolving around mind, body, and spirit. African Americans also have large support systems including nuclear and extended families. They would rather rely on someone who may not be related by blood or marriage than to receive help from community agencies. Informal health care systems within the African Americans community often are consulted. A study showed that African Americans used an informal social network rather than receiving professional health care. Instead of consulting appropriate personnel, they are consulting family members and friends in regards to their personal health problems. This could be a factor in why the health disparities in this particular population are greater than any other race or ethnicity. The Ginger and Davidhizar’s Transcultural Assessment Model focuses on cultural elements. The model includes six cultural phenomena: communication, time, space, social organization, environmental control, and biological variations. These provide a framework for patient assessment and from which culturally sensitive care can be designed. In the following paragraphs, I will begin to talk about each key element and how it corresponds to the African American population. Communication is meaningful because of the culture that frames it, and culture must be expressed to exist. Communication is seen as a problematic part of cultural affiliation and not as caused or predicted by affiliation. Miscommunication is a frequent problem in hospitals. The most obvious is when the patient and hospital staff does not speak the same language. Although the dominant language spoken among African Americans is English, there is a way of speaking among some African Americans that sociolinguists refer to as African American English (AAE) (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). These terms include Black English, Ebonics, Black Vernacular English (BEV), and African American Vernacular English (AAVE) (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). They also prefer the use of nonverbal communication. Therefore, as nurses we should be able to provide care to African Americans without there being a language barrier present. In addition, a head nod does not necessarily mean agreement and when asked personal questions on initial contact with a person it may be viewed in their eyes as intrusive. Space refers to the distance between individuals when they interact. All communication occurs in the context of space. There are four distinct zones of interpersonal space: intimate, personal, social and consultative, and public. Research on use of space among African Americans is mixed. Some studies indicate that, in race-matched pairs, black children will stand closer to each other during conversation than white children do. Other research has shown that African American adults employ a greater public distance from each other than compared when interacting with family and friends. They also prefer close personal space and touching another’s hair is considered improper. African Americans tend to be late for appointments because relationships and events may be deemed more important than being on time. Social organization refers to the manner in which a cultural group organizes itself around the family group. Family structure and organization, religious values and beliefs, and role assignments may all relate to ethnicity and culture. African American’s have many female single-parent families. They are also known for large extended families, in which elders are respected. There preferred religion is Protestant (Baptist), majority of African Americans have a strong church and social affiliations. In 2005, the National Institutes of Health urged African Americans to use family reunions as venues for discussions about diabetes and kidney disease—diseases that disproportionately affect this group (McCoy, 2011). Time is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. Time orientation varies according to age, socioeconomics, and subgroups and may include past, present, or future orientation. Preventive health care requires some future time orientation because preventive actions are motivated by a future reward. African Americans time orientation is present over future. Environmental control refers to the ability of the person to control nature and to plan and direct factors in the environment that affect them. African Americans have traditional health and illness beliefs. They also are known to use folk medicine; the folk healers are root workers. Some African Americans, particularly of Haitian background, may believe in sympathetic magic. Sympathetic magic assumes everything is interconnected and includes the practice of imitative and contagious magic. Contagious magic entails the belief that once an entity is physically connected to another, it can never be separated. This type of belief is seen in the practice of voodoo, when an individual will take a piece of the victim’s hair or fingernail and place a hex, which they believe will cause the person to become ill (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). To African Americans God is thought to be the spiritual healer. Biological differences, especially genetic variations, exist between individuals in different racial groups. Although there is as much diversity within cultural and racial groups as there is across and among cultural and racial groups, knowledge of general baseline data relative to the specific cultural group is an excellent starting point to provide culturally appropriate care. Nutritional preferences for African Americans include fried foods, and among pregnant women pica ingestion. African Americans are susceptible to many health conditions such as; keloid formation, lactose intolerance, sickle cell anemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, thalassemia, sarcoidosis, hypertension, coccidioidomycosis, esophagus and stomach cancers. African Americans are at greater risk for many diseases, especially those associated with low income, stressful life conditions, lack of access to primary health care, and negating health behaviors (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). The greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease and heart attacks amongst African Americans is hypertension. Compared with hypertension in other ethnic groups, hypertension among African Americans is more severe, more resistant to treatment, and begins at a younger age, and the consequence is significantly worse, including organ damage (Brewster, Van Montfrans, & Kleijnen, 2004). African Americans also have an overall higher cancer incidence and mortality rate than any other race African Americans suffer from certain genetic conditions. Sickle cell disease is the most common genetic disorder among the African-American population, affecting one in every 500 African Americans. In addition to sickle cell disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, which interferes with glucose metabolism, is another genetic disease found among African Americans (Caminha-Bacote, 2009). African Americans also metabolized certain drugs differently such as immunosuppressants, antihypertensive, cardiovascular, antiretroviral, psychotropic drugs. After reading through several articles and journals regarding African Americans there are many areas that I would advocate for change but if I had to choose just one, I would pick HIV/AIDS. Many African-Americans are at high risk for HIV infection, not because of their race or ethnicity, but because of the behaviors, they may engage in. As with other ethnic/racial groups, HIV risk depends not on who you are, but on whether you engage in risk-taking behaviors with an HIV positive partner, and whether you have access to care, education and prevention services. The greater number of people living with HIV in African American communities and the fact that African Americans tend to have sex with partners of the same race/ethnicity means that they face greater risk of HIV infection with each new sexual encounter (CDC, 2011). Lack of awareness of HIV status can affect HIV rates in communities. Late diagnosis of HIV infection is common, which creates missed opportunities to obtain early medical care and prevention of transmission to others (CDC, 2011). This disease/illness can be prevented if maximizing the effectiveness of current HIV prevention methods. Implementing programs that teach individuals how to get tested for HIV and prevent the spread of the infection to others. The CDC has set up numerous activities within the communities to address prevention and spread of HIV. For example, The Act against AIDS campaign encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. In 2010, the CDC also began an Expanded Testing Initiative (ETI) for individuals to be tested for HIV. Even though there are multiple resources available to the African American population, I believe stigma, fear, and discrimination are a risk factor in which why they are afraid to be tested. Working in a hospital facility for almost over a year already, I have only been across two individuals who were tested for HIV/AIDS. After learning so much about African Americans and their numerous health disparities this particular infection, can be prevented. It amazes me that in 2009, black men accounted for 70% of the estimated new HIV infections among all blacks. By the end of 2008, an estimated 240,627 blacks with an AIDS diagnosis had died in the U. S. (CDC, 2011). After researching African Americans this particular race/ethnicity bares the most health disparities of all. A major aspect is the quality of the relationship with a health care provider, which is linked to patient satisfaction, adherence, and health outcomes. If African Americans feel that their provider has been, disrespectful they may not return for treatment, may try another provider, or may change their health care plans. This may be an enormous reason why the health disparities are the way they are in African Americans. Success in eliminating disparities in health care access and utilization requires all professionals to critically examine their own biases and to adopt the values and behaviors needed for social change. References Brewster, L. , Van Montfrans, G. , & Kleijnen, J. (2004). Systematic review: Antihypertensive drug therapy in Black patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 14(18), 614-627. Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009). Culture and Diversity Issues: A Culturally Competent Model of Care for African Americans. Urologic Nursing, 29(1), 49-54. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Highlights in Minority Health & Health Disparities. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/omhd/Highlights/2008/HFeb08. htm Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). HIV among African Americans. Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/hiv/topics/aa/PDF/aa. pdf Copeland, V. C. (2005). African Americans: Disparities in Health Care Access and Utilization. National Association of Social Workers, 30(3), 265-270. Health Reform. (2009). Health Disparities: A Case for Closing the Gap. Retrieved from http://www. healthreform. gov/reports/healthdisparities/ Hood, L. , Leddy, S. (2010) Conceptual Bases of Professional Nursing (7ed. ) Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins. McCoy, R. (2011). African American Elders, Cultural Traditions, and the Family Reunion. Generations-Journal of the American Society on Aging, 35(3), 16-21. Russel, K. , Jewell, N. (1992). Cultural Impact of Health-Care Access: Challenges for Improving the Health of African Americans. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 9(3), 161-169. U. S. Census Bureau. (2010). County Business Patterns and Demographics. Retrieved from http://www. census. gov/cbdmap/.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Macroeconomic measures

Organization’s data is vital and has to be protected. This data should have relation with macroeconomic measures for success and effectiveness of the organization. Macroeconomic measures are closely coordinated with organization data for the organization to flourish. This coordination should comprise of efforts in stabilizing exchange rates and leading ultimately. Not only in organization data where microeconomic measures have an impact but also in economy as a whole in changes like unemployment, rate of growth, national income, price levels, gross domestic products and inflation.Using macroeconomic measures organization data helps in determining how well the organization is satisfying its customers. Management is in a position to determine how close organization’s target is. The organization is in a position to track its accomplishment. Through macroeconomic measures and organization’s data, it is possible recognize when an improvement is required and tracking u se of resources and how effectively they are used is possible. Organization’s data with help of macroeconomics measures offer information that supports improvement efforts (Greenwald, 1982, p. 73).Business cycles affect the performances of big drive auto by improving it and making it more effective. If big drive auto applies business cycle in time, it improves its performance. Hiring of counter cycling during recession it helps in increasing market share for big drive auto and it establishes its brand identity. It also helps in building high quality work force, lowers costs and if big drive auto cuts production and inventories then there is anticipation for recession that may cut costs relative to their competitors.Business cycle affects performance of big drive auto by radically re-designing the organization’s procedures and structure. Business cycle allows inclusion of economy-wide measures of performance offering benchmark to performance of big drive auto (Bromiley, et. al, 2008, p. 208). List of References Bromiley, P. et. al, (2008), â€Å"strategic business cycle management and organizational performance: a great unexplored research stream,† strategic organization, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 207-209 Greenwald, D. (1982), Encyclopedia of economics, California: McGraw-Hill